I found an answer in this thread that explains the issue I was having.
If you are trying to log in with an LDAP account that has an email that already exists in the Q&A MySQL database, this redirect occurs. In my case, I had created an account on Q&A when I first installed it to test it out, and I used my email address. Then when I used my company's LDAP for authentication using the qa-ldap-plugin, my account had the same email address as Q&A's database, which caused this.
In the quest to get this solved, you have to delete the cookies in your browser (or just use a different browser), because the redirect will keep happening as long as Q&A thinks that you are logged in. As in, you have to "log out" first so that you can log back in as a super administrator to fix the problem.
The solution is to delete the existing user as a super admin, which you can do per these instructions, and then log out of your super admin account and log back in with your LDAP credentials. A new account is created and no redirect occurs.
This applies to version v0.4 of the qa-ldap-plugin.