Great! They are in the qa-plugin.php file. Each one is in the following format:
$badges['nice_question'] = array('name'=>'Nice Question','desc'=>'Question received +# upvote', 'var'=>2, 'type'=>0);
I don't quite grock the q2a translation format yet, if someone wants to edit the code to allow it to use the q2a translator, feel free.
Oh, and another thing, I haven't tested all the badges yet, so I don't really know if they work :) Maybe they just look pretty. I have tested the nice answer and questions, though... they work.