As I believe there are multiple ways to achieve that. Here are two of them.
Modify the editor and get the EXIF data while uploading an image and storing it in the database so you can retrieve it. With that, you can get the location info. Now you can use that data for your google map.
Note: I have never modified CKEditor for such a feature, So you might have to look at the docs for more details.
Upload images separately, modifying add question/answer forms. That is how you can easily collect EXIF data from the picture, and, finally, you can use it for Google Maps.
I would love to know if any of these works for you.