Ah okay, so it turns out I was making a rookie mistake and my issue was due to browser caching - even though I would change the config.js, the original config.js kept being reflected. So I did both the steps you suggested in your answer (upgraded to question2answer-1.7.1-beta and used that link to download an entirely new ckeditor) and the plugin worked and the button showed up (after clearing cache). However, because I downloaded an entirely new ckeditor, all the buttons were moved around - not desirable.
Next, I did what you said in your follow-up comment, and this all seems to make more sense, and I placed the syntaxhighlighter folder in the ckeditor folder, and added the "config.extraPlugins = 'syntaxhighlight';" line into config.js, but I am hung up where it says, "If the plugin doesn't appear try adding an item called 'Syntaxhighlight' to your toolbar." I have no idea where to add that? If I could figure that out, I think that's the one thing I am missing, because that is the behavior I want - a 3rd line where Remove Format, Maximize, and Code are all together, like in your picture.